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Infectious agents potentially present in untreated domestic wastewater

DESCRIPTION
Infectious agents potentially present in untreated domestic wastewater The impact of untreated domestic wastewater on community reservoirs has raised several health and safety concerns. The organisms of concern in domestic wastewater include enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoan cysts. Table 1 summarizes the most common microorganisms found in domestic wastewater and the types of human diseases associated with them. In response to these concerns, disinfection has become one of the primary mechanisms for the inactivation/destruction of pathogenic organisms. In order for disinfection to be effective wastewater must be adequately treated.

APPLICABILITY
Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant for municipal wastewater because it destroys target organisms by oxidizing cellular material. Chlorine can be supplied in many forms, which include chlorine gas, hypochlorite solutions, and other chlorine compounds in solid or liquid form. Some alternative disinfectants include ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection.



Organism Disease Caused

Bacteria  
 
Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis
Leptospira (spp.) Leptospirosis
Salmonella typhi Typhoid fever
Salmonella (=2100 serotypes) Salmonellosis
Shigella (4 spp.) Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)
Vibrio cholerae Cholera

Protozoa  
 
Balantidium coli Balantidiasis
Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis
Entamoeba histolytica Amebiasis (amoebic dysentery)
Giardia lamblia Giardiasis

Helminths  
 
Ascaris lumbricoides Ascariasis
T. solium Taeniasis
Trichuris trichiura Trichuriasis

Viruses  
 
Enteroviruses (72 types) e.g., polio echo and coxsackie viruses) Gastroenteritis, heart anomalies, meningitis
Hepatitis A virus Infectious hepatitis
Norwalk agent Gastroenteritis
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis
 
 

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Azle, TX 76020
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8765 Spring Cypress Lane L-210
Spring, TX 77379
Ph (832) 904-9529
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